‘Immunis‘ is a latin word meaning free from burden or taxes. Persons free from or resistant t o certain diseases are said to be immune to them.
Immunity is the branch of medical science which deals with immunity.
Immunity is the branch of medical science which deals with the study of development and function of both cellular and humoral components of the immune system by which the body reacts to expel, destroy or neutralize foreign substances including pathogenic microorganisms.
Application of Immunology:
At present the application of immunology is wide spread. It is equally applicable in both diagnostic and therapeutic areas. Following are some of the clearest examples of its application.
- Diagnosis of diseases: By detecting antibody or antigen, it elps in diagnosis of many diseases, which includes infectious diseases, autoimmune diseases and neoplasms, Some commo tests for diagnosis of diseases are ASO titre, VDRL, WIDAL, HBsAg, RA, CEA, etc.
- Understanding disease process: Immunology can explain in many occasions the immunopathogenesis of infectious, autoimmune, neoplastic and many other diseases which once were thought as diseases of unknown etiology.
- Prevention and treatment of diseases: Active and passive immunization against many diseases by vaccine and immunoglobulin are examples of prevention and treatment of diseases. Immunology is going to play a very important role in the management of cancer in near future.
- Blood transfusion serology: Blood grouping, typing and cross matching are prerequisite for blood transfusion and another important application of immunology.
- Tissue typing and histocompatibility testing : Tissue typing and histocompatibility testing are another application and necessary for successful organ transplantation.
- Forensic medicine: In forensic medicine paternity testing, stain identification (e.g., blood, semen etc.) and meat testing is done by applying immunology.